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Which laptop I should buy: Dell, Lenovo, or HP?
If you are stuck between choosing company instead of specs I would say Dell, anytime Dell. Even if it may cost about 5K INR more or less depending on specifications.My experience of comparison between these three tells me: 1) Dell is more flexible with qualities like cross compatibility between batteries of different models (like Latitude and Inspiron have same battery), standard charger port so you can share charger of same electrical specifications. HP and Lenovo have their own custom shaped port. Analogy: Android with micro-USB which majority had and iPhone 5s with lightning connector which was rare in 2013.2) Dell is more robust. Drop your HP and Lenovo and they will break like ceramic. I have seen both Dell and Lenovo fall. Screen connector of Lenovo broke and the person was forced to to painstakingly use the crippled laptop for another year somehow due to financial issues, as service center could not help and asked for a large sum to change body. Dell survived without a scratch.3) It is fairly obvious that HP is overpricing their products & accessories (HP battery costs about 6-7K INR, Dell battery costs around 2-3K INR) and with the reliability being not commensurate to the price. Dell is reasonably priced and gives most punch for the price.4) Dell Support is simply amazing. The person sitting behind that toll free help number knows almost everything and gets you out of any situation.5) Almost all Dell laptops can be customized. I myself could upgrade from 4GB to 8GB RAM. 6) The performance is simply amazing. I run heavy softwares like MATLAB and Xilinx as well as high-end games like Battlefield 3 and Mafia II smoothly (Core i7 3632qm coupled with 2GB AMD Radeon HD 7730). The Full HD screen is beautiful & sharp and brings out the best quality that the media has to offer.7) If you want to force me in telling you issues with Dell I would only speak about battery life. It has reduced from 2.5-3 hours to 1-1.5 hours in 3 years of use. Happens to all laptops though.UPDATE: A lot has changed since I wrote this answer and I made sure some points were updated as of Jan 2022. Dell however, still stays the best!
I am about to buy an HP p15ab030tx with GeForce 940m 2GB. Is the Dell 5558 GeForce 920m 4GB better than the GeForce 940m 2GB?
Dell laptops are mostly overpriced for the hardware they offer. Unless absolutely necessary, don’t buy Dell.As for your question, neither the GT 940M or the GT 920M are able to run games that can maximize the 4GB VRAM you are talking about.And as per benchmarks, GT 940M performs twice as better than GT920M regardless of the VRAM you are getting.A small guide when buying GPUs (especially Nvidia ones):-Look first for the first number it has (in this case both are 9xxM). This shows whether you are getting the newest architecture or not (exceptions exist, as for 920M which exists in 3 different generations)Then look for whether it has a GTX/GT branding. GTX= Gaming orientated; GT= General purposeThen look for the second digit in the naming system (x2xM, x3x M, x4x M etc) . The bigger the number, the better will be the performance.On a note, if comparing b/w processors of different generations, for example GT 750M and GT 840M, they will perform similar in games. Other examples include 840M and 930M, GTX 860M and GTX 950M , GPUs tagged with one integer less in the 2nd place (x_x M) and one integer higher in 1st place (_xx M) perform similarly.Keep in mind that the above guide is currently (as of 2022. applicable to only Nvidia GPUs upto Maxwell-mobile GPU series (9xx M). The Pascal series (10xx) offer significantly more performance than their previous gen counterparts and drop the “M” suffix as they are all desktop GPUs in notebook form factor, and are not “mobile” GPUs.As for AMD GPUs, don’t look under an R9/RX tagged GPU as they offer minimum level of decent gaming performance on the notebook side of things.
Can the Bengali language and culture survive in West Bengal?
I'll tell you a story. There's this sandwich shop, called Sip n Sandwich, in the oldest AC market of Kolkata(yes, the one in Shakespeare Sarani). It's a vegetarian food outlet, the people serving the food are what we Bengalis so fondly call 'non-Bengalis' and they are those lads in their twenties who pretend to take the upper hand if you speak anything other than Hindi and English. Now that's a huge hypocrisy because if these guys are doing business in this city, they ought to learn the language of the majority of the customers. Any how, I went shopping with my mother the other day and when we were done, we went to pick up some sandwiches for the road. My mother inquired and placed the order in Bengali. The swag at the counter immediately took advantage and said on her face that she has to repeat the order in Hindi. My mother got a bit flustered, she isn't very strong with Hindi, and the guy was like, "Dekhiye, aap jo keh rahi hai na, mujhe kuch bhi samajh mein nahi aa raha. Please, aap Hindi mein boliye ya kisi aur ko boliye, woh samjha dega." This made me really angry. Before my mother could even talk to me, I went over and was like, "Dada, dekhun, ekta Sweet corn sandwich ar ekta Mexican sandwich kagojer bakshe moore din, baari niye jabo." The guy said, "Sorry Ma'am, Hindi mein boliye na, English bhi chalega." "Ami ki bollam? " I returned an unflinching look.The guy somehow sensed that I was doing this deliberately, so he called over another guy who understood Bengali. "Haan Didi balun ki byapar, ami Bengali bujhi. " the new participant said. I looked at him and said, "Mein keh rahi ki ek Sweet corn sandwich aur ek Mexican sandwich pack hoga, bhaiya." "Yeh baat toh Ma'am aap pehele bata deti toh... " "Since when are you in this business?" "Do saal se. " he said after exchanging looks with the guy at the counter. " Aur abhi tak Bangla bhi nahi seekhi? " My mother tucked at my elbow, but I wasn't listening to her. " Sorry, Ma'am. " and the guys went back to their own business.And, to my mother's biggest surprise, the sandwiches are exceptionally good that day.This is my point. It is us Bangalis who are striking the axe at our own feet. We are the ones who are giving the rest of the world too much indulgence to help us disappear. If language dies in West Bengal or anywhere in India for the matter, it's going to be because of us. One of the many reasons why I respect Bangladesh so much is because they have the courage to hold on to their mother tongue. So ardent is their love that youths died fighting for the language. Mothers and sisters all over Bangladesh sing this song on the 21st of February each year :"Amar bhaiyer rokte raangano Ekushe February, Ami ki bhulite paari?"(The blood of my brother has stained the date of 21st February red, can I ever forget that?) The question is not whether it will survive, the question is whether we will be able to make it survive.Listening to Rabindra sangeet all day, taking part in discussions that detest the current political scenario, eating Rosogollas all day doesn't make you a Bengali. I don't do any of the above (no offence to the great man, but all day? That's too much) but I am a true-blooded Bangali and I speak BANGLA (not Bengali, you wretched morons). The culture is way more extended beyond Rabindranath or Nazrul for the matter. How many of us have read Jibonananda? I doubt if half of the 'Bengali' s even know his name. Art is way beyond Potochitra of Kalighat and Bankura'r ghora. Food is way more beyond machher jhol and sorshe ilish and Rosogollas and Misti doi. Seriously? Yes, because that's the way we have been portraying ourselves for the past decade - a vulnerable community who will succumb to anyone's wishes to impress them and bring out (and regurgitate) only that side of theirs that make them acceptable, if the tradition or the food is a little out of the way, boy, better keep that under cover for the next century.
In case of metal catalysed hydrogenation (having only 1 equivalent of hydrogen) of a compound containing both carbonyl and double bond then which bond will get reduced?
Hydritself is not reactive towards organic molecules, all useful reactions involve transition metal catalysts. The most used ones for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis reaction are (in that order) Pd, Pt, Rh, Ni, Ru. Many kinds of functional groups can be reduced with H2 and a suitable catalyst, and this is the preferred method for large scale industrial reductions. However, because of the inconvenience of using a hydrogenation apparatus or pressure bottle for small scale laboratory use, hydrogenations are usually used only when other more convenient reagents are not up to the task (for example, carbonyl reductions are usually done using boron or aluminum hydride reagents). There are three main types of reductions where H2/cat is usually the preferred method: (1) hydrogenation of double bonds; (2) partial reduction of acetylenes (Lindlar); (3) hydrogenolysis of benzyl protecting groups.Below is a rough reactivity order of functional groups towards catalytic hydrogenation. Note that the details of substrate structure as well as the metal used, ligands, presence of acid or base catalysts, and solvents can alter this sequence in specific cases.Alkene HydrogenationsDouble bonds are hydrogenated faster than most carbonyl compounds are reduced (the exceptions are acid chlorides and sometimes aldehydes). The ease of hydrogenation is very sensitive to the number of substituents, with monosubstituted alkenes reacting most rapidly, and tetrasubstituted alkenes sometimes being very difficult to reduce. The activated hydris in the form of Pt-H or Pd-H bonds on the surface of metal particles, and hindered alkenes can't approach the M-H bonds easily.Catalytic hydrogenation will usually cleanly reduce only the double bond of?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. This is in contrast to most metal hydride (B-H, Al-H) reagents, which usually selectively reduce the carbonyl group. Oleocanthal: Smith, A. B.; Han, Q.; Breslin, P. A. S.; Beauchamp. G. K. Org. Let. 2022. 7, 5075.Asymmetric HydrogenationCatalytic asymmetric hydrogenations have been developed extensively, especially for the large-scale preparation of optically pure materials such as amino acids. William Knowles (along with Noyori and Sharpless) won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2022 for developments in this area.The Monsanto process for synthesis of L-DOPA developed by Knowles and coworkers (Knowles, W. S. Acc. Chem. Res. 1983, 16, 106-112) DOI, Nobel LectureA powerful method for the asymmetric hydrogenation of?-keto esters was developed by Noyori using BINAP-Ru complexes (Acc. Chem. Res. 1990, 23, 345), in which asymmetric reduction accompanied by dynamic kinetic resolution was achieved (Noyori J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 9134).Semi-reduction of AlkynesThere are several procedures for reducing triple bonds selectively to cis-double bonds in addition to catalytic hydrogenation (diimide reduction, hydroboration-protonation, hydroalumination-protonation), but the classical Lindlar hydrogenation (using a catalyst consisting of Pd on CaCO3, poisoned with lead and/or quinoline) is still the most widely used method. Benzyl protecting groups usually survive Lindlar hydrogenationsAcutiphycin: Smith, A. B.; Chen, S. S.-Y.; Nelsom, F.; Reichert, J. M.; Salvatore, B. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 10935. DOIEndiandric acids: Nicolaou, K. C.; Petasis, N. A.; Zipkin, R. E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982, 104, 5558, 5560Hydrogenolysis of Benzyl Protecting GroupsBenzyl ethers are sturdy protecting groups which are readily removed by catalytic hydrogenation.They are stable to reaction conditions (acid, base, oxidants, hydride reductants, and fluoride ion) that are used to remove other orthoprotecting groups. The principal interferences are easily hydrogenated functions like unhindered alkenes, aldehydes, acetylenes, or some alkyl halides. In the example below, note that the O-Bn group can be removed in the presence of a?-lactone, an alkyl chloride, and even an N-benzyl group (PMB = p-methoxybenzyl). Salinosporamide A: Ma, G.; Nguyen, H.; Romo, D. Org. Lett. 2022. 9, 2143. DOIHydrogenolysis of CyclopropanesCyclopropanes undergo relatively facile C-C bond hydrogenolysis, a reaction which has found some use in the introduction of gem-dimethyl groups from ketones, as in the example below. Spongian-16-one: Pattenden, G.; Roberts, L. Tetrahedron Lett.1996, 37, 4191.Hope you find your solution……
What are the weaknesses of antibody-drug conjugates?
Despite the fact that initially only two antibody drug conjugates--brentuximab vedotin and emtansine (T-DM1)--have been approved by FDA to enter the market, considerable progress has been achieved in the past few decades, like higher levels of cytotoxic drug conjugation, lower levels of naked antibodies and more-stable linkers between the drug and the antibody. By learning lessons from failures, stresses are now laid on the following aspects:?strategies to select the best target antigens as well as suitable cytotoxic drugs;? the design of optimized linkers;? the discovery of bio-orthoconjugation chemistries;? and toxicity issues.Also, the selection and engineering of antibodies for site-specific drug conjugation, accompanied by the quest for new conjugation chemistries and mechanisms of action, are among top priorities in ADC research as they will contribute to increased stability and higher homogeneity.
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